Timeline of Same-sex marriage legalized
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In the Netherlands, same-sex marriage has been legal since 1 April 2001. The Netherlands was the first country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage. Cr.
On 1 June 2003, Belgium became the second country in the world to legalise same-sex marriage, after the Netherlands. "Statutory cohabitation", open to any two legally consenting cohabiting persons, is also possible since 1 January 2000. Cr.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Spain since 3 July 2005. In 2004, the nation's newly elected Socialist Party (PSOE) Government, led by Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, began a campaign for its legalization, including the right of adoption by same-sex couples. After much debate, a law permitting same-sex marriage was passed by the Cortes Generales (Spain's bicameral Parliament, composed of the Senate and the Congress of Deputies) on 30 June 2005 and published on 2 July 2005. The law took effect the next day. Cr.
Same-sex marriage in Canada was progressively introduced in several provinces by court decisions beginning in 2003 before being legally recognized nationwide with the enactment of the Civil Marriage Act on July 20, 2005. Cr.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in South Africa since the Civil Union Act came into force on 30 November 2006. The decision of the Constitutional Court in the case of Minister of Home Affairs v Fourie on 1 December 2005 extended the common-law definition of marriage to include same-sex spouses—as the Constitution of South Africa guarantees equal protection before the law to all citizens regardless of sexual orientation—and gave Parliament one year to rectify the inequality in the marriage statutes. On 14 November 2006, the National Assembly passed a law allowing same-sex couples to legally marry 230 to 41, which was subsequently approved by the National Council of Provinces on 28 November in a 36 to 11 vote, and the law came into effect two days later. Cr.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Norway on 1 January 2009, when a gender neutral marriage bill was enacted after being passed by the Norwegian parliament in June 2008. Norway became the first Scandinavian country and the sixth country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage. Cr.
Same-sex marriage in Sweden has been legal since 1 May 2009, following the adoption of a new, gender-neutral law on marriage by the Swedish parliament on 1 April 2009, making Sweden the seventh country in the world to open marriage to same-sex couples nationwide. Existing registered partnerships will remain in force, and can be converted to a marriage if the parties so desire, either through a written application or through a formal ceremony. New registered partnerships will no longer be able to be entered into and marriage will be the only legally recognized form of union for couples regardless of sex. Cr.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Portugal since 5 June 2010. The Government of Prime Minister José Sócrates introduced a bill for legalization in December 2009; it was passed by the Assembly of the Republic (the Portuguese Parliament) in February 2010. The bill was declared legally valid by the Portuguese Constitutional Court in April 2010. On 17 May 2010, President Aníbal Cavaco Silva ratified the law and Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth country in the world to allow same-sex marriage nationwide. The law was published in the official journal Diário da Republica on 31 May 2010 and became effective on 5 June 2010. Cr.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Iceland since 27 June 2010. A bill providing for a gender-neutral marriage definition was passed by the Icelandic Althing on 11 June 2010. No members of Parliament voted against the bill, and public opinion polls suggest that the bill is very popular in Iceland. Iceland became the ninth country in the world to have legalized same-sex marriage. Cr.
Same-sex marriage in Argentina has been legal since July 22, 2010. Argentina was the first country in Latin America, the second in the Americas, and the second in the Southern Hemisphere to allow same-sex marriage nationwide. It was the tenth country worldwide to allow same-sex marriage. Cr.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Denmark on 15 June 2012. The bill for legalization, introduced by the government of Helle Thorning-Schmidt, was approved by the Folketing on 7 June 2012 and received Royal Assent on 12 June 2012. Same-sex couples were previously recognized through registered partnerships. Denmark was the eleventh country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage. Cr.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Brazil since 16 May 2013, following the National Justice Council decision, which orders notaries of every state to perform same-sex marriages. The ruling is on appeal to the Supreme Court. Cr.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in France since 18 May 2013. It is the thirteenth country worldwide to allow same-sex couples to marry. The legislation applies to metropolitan France as well as to the French Overseas departments and territories. Cr.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Uruguay on August 5, 2013. A bill for legalization was passed by the Chamber of Deputies on December 12, 2012 in a vote of 81–6. The Senate approved it with some minor amendments on April 2, 2013, in a 23–8 vote. The amended bill was approved by the Chamber of Deputies in a 71–21 vote on April 10 and was signed by the President on May 3, 2013. Cr.
Same-sex marriage became legal in New Zealand on 19 August 2013. A bill for legalisation was passed by the New Zealand House of Representatives on 17 April 2013 by 77 votes to 44 and received royal assent on 19 April 2013. It entered into force four months after assent, to allow time for the Department of Internal Affairs to make the necessary changes for marriage licensing and related documentation. New Zealand became the first country in Oceania, the fourth in the Southern Hemisphere, and the fifteenth overall to allow same-sex couples to marry. The Parliament of New Zealand can enact marriage laws only in regard to New Zealand proper and the Ross Dependency (Antarctica). The three other territories making up the Realm of New Zealand—the Cook Islands, Niue and Tokelau—do not perform or recognise same-sex marriage. Cr.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Luxembourg on 1 January 2015. A bill for the legalisation of such marriages was enacted by the Chamber of Deputies on 18 June 2014. Partnerships have also been available since 2004. Cr.
In the United States, same-sex marriage is legal in all states, Washington, D.C., as well as all U.S. territories except American Samoa, but not on all Indian lands, since June 26, 2015, when the United States Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell v. Hodges that state-level bans on same-sex marriage are unconstitutional. The court ruled that the denial of marriage licenses to same-sex couples and the refusal to recognize those marriages performed in other jurisdictions violates the Due Process and the Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. The ruling overturned a 1972 precedent, Baker v. Nelson. Just prior to the Supreme Court's ruling in 2015, same-sex marriage was legal in many U.S. jurisdictions but not all. Cr.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Ireland since 16 November 2015. A referendum on 22 May 2015 amended the Constitution of Ireland to provide that marriage is recognised irrespective of the sex of the partners. The measure was signed into law by the President of Ireland as the Thirty-fourth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland on 29 August 2015. The Marriage Act 2015, passed by the Oireachtas on 22 October 2015 and signed into law by the Presidential Commission on 29 October 2015, gave legislative effect to the amendment. Marriages of same-sex couples in Ireland began being recognised from 16 November 2015 and the first marriage ceremonies of same-sex couples in Ireland occurred on 17 November 2015. Cr.
Same-sex marriage is legal in Colombia. A 6-3 ruling of the Constitutional Court of Colombia on 28 April 2016 found that banning same-sex marriage was unconstitutional under the Colombian Constitution. The first same-sex marriage to be performed in the country following the ruling occurred on 24 May 2016. The country has also recognised same-sex de facto unions since 2007. Cr.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Finland since 1 March 2017. A bill for legalisation was approved by the Parliament on 12 December 2014 and signed by the President on 20 February 2015. Previously, from 2002 until 2017, registered partnerships (Finnish: rekisteröity parisuhde; Swedish: registrerat partnerskap) had been available for same-sex couples, which provided the same rights and responsibilities as marriage for opposite-sex couples, except e.g. adoption rights and the right to a joint last name. Cr.
Same-sex marriage is currently not legal in Taiwan, despite being the subject of public discussion since the early 2000s. Currently, some jurisdictions in Taiwan allow same-sex couples to register as partners, though the rights afforded by such registrations are very limited. Bills to legalise same-sex marriage are currently pending in the Legislative Yuan. If any of these bills were to pass, this would make Taiwan the first country in Asia to allow same-sex marriage. On 24 May 2017 the Constitutional Court ruled that same-sex couples have a right to marry, and gave the legislature two years to adequately amend Taiwanese marriage laws. Cr.
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